Biblical Archaeologist

 
 

2/1967

The Biblical Archaeologist

Contents Taanach by the Waters of Megiddo, by Paul W. Lapp      2 Wilson's Arch and the Masonic Hall, Summer 1966, by William F. Stinespring    27 A Message to Our Readers     31 textauszug Taanach By The Waters Of Megiddo PAUL W. LAPP American School, Jerusalem, Jordan The frequency of its mention in the Bible is not a very reliable guide to the size or historical importance of a town in biblical times. Taanach is mentioned seven times, Megiddo twelve. The size of Taanach, delimited throughout its history by its Early Bronze fortifications, is nearly fourteen acres. While Megiddo was somewhat larger than Taanaeh in the Bronze age, in Israelite times Megiddo covered only about thirteen acres. fluch more prominent in biblical events are Shiloh and Bethel, mentioned respectively 32 and 64 times. Both these towns arc less than a third the size of Taanach. The differing purposes of the various biblical texts are major factors in detcrmining the number of times a town is mentioned in the Bible. Some towns were mentioned because they happened to be the seene of an important battle or death, or wcre an a territorial ...

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2/1971

The Biblical Archaeologist

Contents Mari, by Abraham Malamat     2 The "Ghassulian" Temple in Ein Gedi and the Origin of the Hoard from Nahal Mishmar, by David Ussishkin     23 Nelson Glueck: In Memoriam     39 Mari ABRAHAM MALAMAT Hebrew University, Jerusalem Mari was one of the prineipal centers of Mesopotamia during the third and early second millennia B.C. The archaeological and epigraphical discoveries there are of prime significance for the history of Mesopotamia and upper Syria, and for biblical research, especially on Hebrew origins and the formative stages of Israelite history. Mari (sometimes Ma'eri in the euneiform sourccs) was located at Tell Hariri, at present about a mile and onehalf west of the Euphrates near Abu Kemal, some fifteen miles north of the modern Syria-Iraq border. lt was in an optimal position for eontacts with the west, and its loeation on the river artery, yet immediately adjacent to the desert, was continually deeisive in the shaping of its fortune and eharacter.  

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9/1967

The Biblical Archaeologist

Contents Archaeology and the Six Day War     73 The Tomb of Jesus, by Robert H. Smith      74 Imperial Church Building in the Holy Land in the Fourth Century, by Gregory T. Armstrong      90 Notices Concerning Subscriptions and New Publication Office     108 The Tomb of Jesus ROBERT HOUSTON SMITH The CoIlege of Wooster It is Sunday morning in Jerusalem. You leave the modern part of the City, with its blaring automobile horns, and enter the massive, erenelated Damaseus Gate whieh stands astride the northern wall of the Old City. At once you are in another world. fiere, too, is noise, but of a quainter sogt: the clopping of donkeys' hooves, the elinking of teacups and the clattering of gameboard pieces. The past envelops you. Patinated limestone buildings, some of which were perhaps standing when the vietorious Muslim general Saladin entered Jerusalem nearly eight hundred years ago, crowd upon one another, separated by narrow lanes that climb and descend in every direction. Some of the streets, straighter than the rest, were laid out by Roman engineers in the 2nd century. Walk sou...

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12/1967

The Biblical Archaeologist

Contents Tell el-Husn — Biblical Beth-shan, by Henry O. Thompson     110 The Temple Scroll, by Yigael Yadin     135 Index to Volumen XXVI-XXX, prepared by Robert G. Anderson, jr.     140   Textauszug Tell el-Husn — Biblical Beth-shan HENRY 0. THOMPSON New York Theological Seminary The valley of Jezreel is seldom more than a few miles wide as it passes between Mt. Gilboa on the south and the hills of Galilee on the north. It passes sea level about two miles from the Esdraelon valley and then drops to 400 feet below sea level in nine miles. Then the valley falls over a ledge and 300 feet below merges with the Jordan valley. On top of this ledge, thirtv-fivc miles east of Haifa and twenty miles east of Nazareth, fifty miles north of Jerusalem and Tour miles west of Jordan, and fifteen miles south of the Sca of Galilee, stands Tell el-Husn, the Mound of the Fortress. It guards one of the approaches to the Jezreel (and hence to Esdraelon) in one direction and to the Jordan valley in the other. In the whole length of Palestine, tbis is the onlv lowland route from the Mediterranean to the Jordan. What...

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12/1970

The Biblical Archaeologist

Geological Studies in Field Archaeology REUBEN G. BULLARD Geology Department, University of cincinnati The science of geology treats the crust of the earth in muck the same way that archaeology considers arcas of human occupation. This discussion seeks to explore this parallel relationship and to examine some aspects of excayation in which questions arise that apply to areas of specialty for geologists. Tbe writer is aware of tbe problem of terminology which may be unfamiliar to the non-geologist. Minimal definitions are included in the discussion. Field study for this article was carried out an the site of Gezer in the ventral Shephelah of Israel. The aim of the inyestigation conducted during tbe excayations has been a broader understanding of the relationship between Cezer's inhabitants and their Environment during the city's history. Certain areas of inquiry baye proyed useful in the initial phases of this research. A suryey of the local and regional geology made from field studics and from the growing literature has provided information about the nature and origin of the•rocks and minerals encountered in excayation. Exposed soils and clays within five kilometer...

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2/1970

The Biblical Archaeologist

Contents Secondary Burials in Palestine, by Eric M. Meyers     2 Cumulative Subject Index to BA    29 Archaeological News and Views    29   Textauszug: Secondary Burials in Palestine ERIC M. MEYERS Duke University One of the most prevalent and yet least understood of ancient Palestinian burial customs is that of ossilegium, or secondary burial. Such a practice is characterized by the collection .of skeletalized remains at some point after the flesh had wasted away .and by their deposition in a new place of repose. This type of burial contrasts with the more familiar primary inhumation which transpires shortly after death and remains undisturbed. By and Large the frequency with which secondary burials appear in the Jong history of Palestinian tombs has been overlooked. Perhaps this oversight derives from the traditional view which held such a practice alien to the spirit of Semitie peoples, for whom disturbing the repose of the dead was tbought to be so repugnant. Such an attitude is reflected in the biblical statement of Numbers 19:15: "Whoever in the open fields touches one who is slain with a sw...

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5/1970

The Biblical Archaeologist

Contents The Necropolis from the Time of the Kingdom of Judah at Silwan, Jerusalem, by David Ussishkin      34 The Excavation South and West of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem: The Herodian Period, by Benjamin Mazar      47 Paul W. Lapp: In Memoriam      60 The New Organization of ASOR      63 Textauszug The Necropolis from the Time of the Kingdom of Judah at Silwan, Jerusalem DAVID USSISHKIN Tel Aviv University One of the impressive archaeological remains from the period of the First Temple in Jerusalem, when the City was the capital of the kings of the house of David, is the necropolis situated within the arca of the presentday village of Silwan. The existence of the necropolis had been known for mang years, and various tombs teere studied by distinguished scholars, primarily C. Schick, C. Clermont-Ganneau, A. Reifenberg, N. Avigad and recently S. Loffreda. In spite of its importance, however, a general systematic study of the necropolis was not carricd out until last year. The reason for this is, perhaps, to be sought in the hostile nature of tbe villagers. Already in the 19t...

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9/1970

The Biblical Archaeologist

Megiddo of the Kings of Israel YIGAEL YADIN The Hebrew University (Professor Yadin broke the news of his restudy of the Megiddo stratigraphy in the BA ten years ago, after the first of three short campaigns 1w describes in this article. The report was so important that we squeezed it in tiny type with only three photographs at the end of BA, XXIII.2. The article you are about to read contains much that is new and exciting; for that reason we have left a certain amount of repetition of the 1960 article in place so that the entire picture can be painted. — EFC) Tbe endeavors of the spade to unearth the building remains of Solomon, greatest builder among Israel's kings, are part of the enthralling web of the excavations in the Holy Land during the last seyenty years. No doubt the crowning glory of Solomon's enterprises is the Temple he built in Jerusalem, to whieb, understandably, whole chapters in the Bible are dedicated. David, who spent bis life warring even beyond the borders of Israel, had no time to build fortifed cities (which bis offensive strategy in fast made unnecessary), let alone the Temple in Jerusalem. "You know that David my father could not buil...

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5/1967

The Biblical Archaeologist

Contents Gezer in the Land and in History, by H. Darrell Lance     34 Excavations at Gezer, by William G. Dever     47 Gezer in the Tell el-Amarna Letters, by James F. Ross     62 Recent Books Received     71 Textauszug Gezer in the Land and in History DARRELL LANCE* colgate Rochester Divinity School Few of the mounds of Palestine can Claim a more splendid natural setting than the mound of Gem. The hill itself (Fig. 2) which the teil crowns does not especially impress the approaching visitor; it is neither as high nor as large as its neighbor to the south. Only when he reaches the summit of the mound and turns to look at the plain from which he has just climbed does the visitor begin to understand why Gezer was one of the chief Cities of pre-Roman Palestine. For Gezer is built on the northernmost ridge of the Shephelah, the low hills of EoCene limestone which stretch from here to the south along the western flank of the Judean highlands; and although the top of the mound rises only 200-300 feet above the surrounding plain, there are higher hills only to the south of it.' Consequently the view from th...

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2/1965

The Biblical Archaeologist

Contents Tell el-Fül, by Paul W. Lapp      2 The First Excavations at Tell es-Sa idiyeh, by James B. Pritchard     10 Archaeologieal News from Jordan     17 Textauaszug Teil el-Ful PAUL W. LAPP, Director The American School of Oriental Research. Jerusalem To follow up on the exeavations of Professor W. F. Albright in 192223 and 1933 (BA, XXVII [19641, 52-64), and to salvage additional archaeological material while the site was still available for excavation, the American Sehool of Oriental Research in Jerusalem jointly with Pittsburgh Theological Seminary undertook a campaign at Tell el-Ful (Gibeah of Saul) from May 4 to June 13, 1964. Three areas were excavated: a trench was taken from the west against the northwest corner of what Albright considered the southwest tower of the Fortress of Saul; a considerable area to the north of this tower was excavated to bedrock near the western edge of the summit; and on the eastern edge of the summit another, larger, area was cleared to bedrock directly north of that area cleared by Albright in 1933. The west trench against the southwest tower revealed the tower's f...

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5/1967

The Biblical Archaeologist

Organs of Statecraft in the Israelite Monarchy ABRAHAM MALAMAT Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel The following lecture was presented an August 22, 1963 before a Bible study group at the hone of the former Printe Minister of Israel, Mr. David Ben-Gurion, and with the participation of the President of Israel, Mr. Zalman Shazar. The meeting was presided over by Justice of the Supreme Court, Prof. Moshe Silberg. The lecture and discussion were subsequently published with notes and a few minor changes in English translation, in the series El Ha Ayin, by the World Jewish Bible Society and the Israel Society for Biblical Research. We have decided to reprint it here both because we feel that this address is of such interest that it deserves a wider audience and because -we think our readers will be interested to learn, as evidenced by the discussion, of the keen interest taken in biblical studies by laymen as well as scholars in Israel. —Ed. Rehoboam And The Schism Within The Kingdom The main burden of my remarks will coneern the speeific aspects cf the politieal apparatus and organs of statecraft as they emerge from the first balf of I Kings 12.1 This section deals ...

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9/1965

The Biblical Archaeologist

Contents Ezion-geber, by Nelson Glueck      70 The Biblical ScrolLs from Qumran and the Text of the Old Testament, by Patrick W. Skehan      87 Textauszug Ezion-geber NELSON GLUECK Hebrew Union College — Jewish Institute et Religion Y ears ago, President Glueck wrote three articles on Ezion-geber: Elath for the B.A. Since that time, as he makes clear below, new information pertaining to the Interpretation of the remains has come to light. Since the "smelter" there has found its way into many of the standard textbooks in biblical archaeology. Glueck's new ideas on the matter are extremely important, and they demonstrate a capacity to change cherished convictions gracefully. Since scholars will want to trace Glueck's shift, uze have left the rather fall documentation in the footnotes intact. — Ed. The first one to suggest the identification of Ezion-geber with Teil el-Kheleifeh was Fritz Frank.' The small low mound is located approximately in the center of the north shore of the Gulf of Aqabah, midway between Jordanian Aqabah at its east end and Israeli Eilat at its west end. It is about 500 yards...

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12/1965

The Biblical Archaeologist

Contents The Kingdom of Ugarit, by A. F. Rainey     102 Archaeological News and Views     125 Textauszug The Kingdom of Ugarit A. F. RAINEY Tel Aviv University The mound of Ras Shamra ("Fenel Head"), located eight miles north of Latakia on the Syrian coast, continues to yield its treasures to the excayator's spade. Since his first expedition in the spring of 1929, Professor C. F. A. Schaeffer, director of La mission archeologique de Ras Shamra, has proyided the archaeologieal world with new surprises eyery season; and these haye been truly important contributions to the study of antiquitt'. The ancient City whose ruins lie buried in Ras Shamra was known as Ugarit, and its local language is now called Ugaritic. The relationship of this newly discoyered tongue to the rest of the Semitic family and the light shed by Ugaritic literature on the Old Testament milieu haye gained far more attention than most other aspects of Ugaritology. Howeyer, the fruits of Professor Sehaeffer's excayations also comprise a welcome and yaluable addition to our knowledge of history and society in north Syria during the Late Bronze age.'  

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2/1966

The Biblical Archaeologist

Contents The Household Camps of Palestine in New Testament Times, by Robert H. Smith     2 Wilson's Arch Revisited, by Williani F. Stinespring     27 Concerning an American Schals Publication     36 Textauszug The Household Lamps of Palestine in New Testament Times (Third in a three-part series ROBERT HOUSTON SMITH The College of Wooster The era of the New Testament falls within the brief span of the Early Roman period of Palestinian history, which began about the time when Herod the Great took the throne in 37 B.C.' and ended with the destruction of Jerusalem at the end of the Second Jewish Revolt in A.D. 135. This period, especially in its earlier decades, has often been called "Herodian," since members of the dynasty founded by Herod (who died in 4 B.C.) continued—under Roman superyision—to rule some parts of Palestine down to the end of the first century A.D. It was an era characterized not by a sharp eultural departure from the preceding period but rather by a gradual and somewhat erratic replacement of Hellenistic elements with Roman ones, a process whieh was not eomplete by the end of t...

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5/1966

The Biblical Archaeologist

A New Look at Ancient Sardis DAVID GORDON MITTEN Fogg Art Museums, Harvard University Few capitals of the ancient world can bogst so remarkable a record of fateful encounters between east and west as does Sardis. Its origins resch into the Bronze Age. During the 7th and 6th centuries B.C., its ambitious rulers exploited its strategic location and natural resources to make it the capital of western Asia Minor and its name a byword to the Greeks for wealth and luxury. Cyrus and his successors transformed it into their western capital, from which the Anatolian and Ionian satrapies of the Persian Empire were ruled and a eentury of intrigue and military operations against Greece was launched. Sardis remained a major administratiye center under Alexander and his suceessor rulers until it passed under Roman control. Shortly after the time of Christ, a deyastating earthquake inaugurated rebuilding of the city in a series of monumental architectural complexes which continued in use during the later Roman empire and the early centuries of Byzantine rufe. Sardis' existence as a city in the classical tradition was abruptly terminated early in the 7th century A.D. by inyading Sassania...

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